Caudal epidural steroid injections

Use in the Head and Neck Area: Small doses of local anesthetics injected into the head and neck area, including retrobulbar, dental and stellate ganglion blocks, may produce adverse reactions similar to systemic toxicity seen with unintentional intravascular injections of larger doses. Confusion, convulsions, respiratory depression and/or respiratory arrest and cardiovascular stimulation or depression have been reported. These reactions may be due to intra-arterial injections of the local anesthetic with retrograde flow to the cerebral circulation. Patients receiving these blocks should have their circulation and respiration monitored and be constantly observed. Resuscitative equipment and personnel for treating adverse reactions should be immediately available. Dosage recommendations should not be exceeded. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Lumbar disc prolapse as a cause of back and leg pain is quite common and results in significant disability. This is a prospective uncontrolled study done on 40 patients with signs and symptoms of lumbar disc prolapse, in whom conservative treatment of at least 6 weeks had failed. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of caudally administered epidural steroids in the treatment of such patients. Back pain and leg pain was quantitatively assessed separately using the visual analogue scale and the functional disability was measured using Oswestry disability index (ODI) version , before the procedure and at regular intervals after the procedure for a period of 6 months. All the patients had an ODI more than 40% before the procedure. Through the sacral hiatus, methylprednisolone, lignocaine 2% and normal saline were injected into the epidural space. After 24 hours, pain relief was seen in all the patients except one. After 3 weeks, symptomatic improvement was seen in % of the cases, with good results in 65% and fair results in %. After 6 months, symptomatic improvement was seen in % of the cases with good results in % and fair results in 20% of the patients. No major complications were observed. It is concluded that caudally administered epidural steroid injections are a safe and effective modality of treatment in lumbar disc prolapse with good results in short term and possibly long term in some patients.

The following patients should not have this injection: if you are allergic to any of the medications to be injected, if you are on a blood-thinning medication (. Coumadin, injectable Heparin), or if you have an active infection going on. With blood thinners like Coumadin, your doctor may advise you to stop this for 4-7 days beforehand or take “bridge therapy” with Lovenox prior to the procedures. Anti-platelet drugs like Plavix may have to be stopped for 5-10 days prior to the procedure. Aspirin should be stopped for cervical procedures for 10 days prior, but not for Lumbar.

During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given. When using a “continuous” catheter technique, test doses should be given prior to both the original and all reinforcing doses, because plastic tubing in the epidural space can migrate into a blood vessel or through the dura. When clinical conditions permit, the test dose should contain epinephrine (10 mcg to 15 mcg has been suggested) to serve as a warning of unintended intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and/or systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations, and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Therefore, following the test dose, the heart rate should be monitored for a heart rate increase. Patients on beta-blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect a transient rise in systolic blood pressure. The test dose should also contain 10 mg to 15 mg of MARCAINE or an equivalent amount of another local anesthetic to detect an unintended intrathecal administration. This will be evidenced within a few minutes by signs of spinal block (., decreased sensation of the buttocks, paresis of the legs, or, in the sedated patient, absent knee jerk). The Test Dose formulation of MARCAINE contains 15 mg of bupivacaine and 15 mcg of epinephrine in a volume of 3 mL. An intravascular or subarachnoid injection is still possible even if results of the test dose are negative. The test dose itself may produce a systemic toxic reaction, high spinal or epinephrine-induced cardiovascular effects.

As a skilled and experienced Pain Medicine Interventionalist, Dr. Levin evaluates each patient very thoroughly and carefully to help determine appropriate treatment options in order to provide the most effective individualized care.  These treatment options may include:  Lumbar, Thoracic and Cervical Epidural Steroid Injections utilizing targeted transforaminal techniques, Lumbar and Cervical Sympathetic Blocks, Sphenopalatine, Facial and Head and Neck Procedures, Discography, Percutaneuos Discectomy or Disc Decompression procedures, precision joint and nerve injections, Radiofrequency Neuroablative procedures, Peripheral or Spinal Cord Stimulator trials and implants, Foraminoplasties and several patented and patent pending advanced interventional procedures.

Caudal epidural steroid injections

caudal epidural steroid injections

During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given. When using a “continuous” catheter technique, test doses should be given prior to both the original and all reinforcing doses, because plastic tubing in the epidural space can migrate into a blood vessel or through the dura. When clinical conditions permit, the test dose should contain epinephrine (10 mcg to 15 mcg has been suggested) to serve as a warning of unintended intravascular injection. If injected into a blood vessel, this amount of epinephrine is likely to produce a transient “epinephrine response” within 45 seconds, consisting of an increase in heart rate and/or systolic blood pressure, circumoral pallor, palpitations, and nervousness in the unsedated patient. The sedated patient may exhibit only a pulse rate increase of 20 or more beats per minute for 15 or more seconds. Therefore, following the test dose, the heart rate should be monitored for a heart rate increase. Patients on beta-blockers may not manifest changes in heart rate, but blood pressure monitoring can detect a transient rise in systolic blood pressure. The test dose should also contain 10 mg to 15 mg of MARCAINE or an equivalent amount of another local anesthetic to detect an unintended intrathecal administration. This will be evidenced within a few minutes by signs of spinal block (., decreased sensation of the buttocks, paresis of the legs, or, in the sedated patient, absent knee jerk). The Test Dose formulation of MARCAINE contains 15 mg of bupivacaine and 15 mcg of epinephrine in a volume of 3 mL. An intravascular or subarachnoid injection is still possible even if results of the test dose are negative. The test dose itself may produce a systemic toxic reaction, high spinal or epinephrine-induced cardiovascular effects.

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