More effective cough treatment options are needed, yet no new antitussive drugs have been developed in the last half century, according to Dicpinigaitis. With the discovery of TRPV1, however, pharmaceutical companies’ interest in these medications has surged. Numerous potential novel antitussive agents are now being studied, including antagonists to eosinophil, tachykinin receptor, 5-HT receptor, and TRPV1 receptor; agonists to the delta-opioid receptor, NOP receptor, and GABA-B; endogenous cannabinoids, and large conductance Ca+2-activated K+-channel openers.
Medications such as diuretics, phenytoin, niacin, and high-dose corticosteroids can produce hyperglycemia that is reversible once the drugs are discontinued or when diuretic-induced hypokalemia is corrected. Chronic pancreatitis or subtotal pancreatectomy reduces the number of functioning B cells and can result in a metabolic derangement very similar to that of genetic type 1 diabetes except that a concomitant reduction in pancreatic A cells may reduce glucagon secretion so that relatively lower doses of insulin replacement are needed. Insulin-dependent diabetes is occasionally associated with Addison’s disease and autoimmune thyroiditis ( Schmidt’s syndrome , or polyglandular failure syndrome ). This occurs more commonly in women and represents an autoimmune disorder in which there are circulating antibodies to adrenocortical and thyroid tissue, thyroglobulin, and gastric parietal cells.