Gonadal steroidogenesis ppt

Animal Data: Major fetal abnormalities were observed in rabbits at 3 times human therapeutic exposure but not in rats after administration of histrelin acetate throughout gestation. There was dose-related increased fetal mortality during organogenesis in both rats given 1, 3, 5 or 15 mcg/kg/day (at less than therapeutic exposures using body surface area comparisons, based on a 65 mcg per day human dose) and in rabbits at 20, 50 or 80 mcg/kg/day (at 3 times human exposure using body surface area comparisons, based on a 65 mcg/day dose in humans).

In the majority of patients, serum testosterone increased by 50% or more above baseline during the first week of treatment. Serum testosterone suppressed to the castrate range within 30 days of the initial depot injection in 94% (51/54) of patients for whom testosterone suppression was achieved (2 patients withdrew prior to onset of suppression) and within 66 days in all 54 patients. Mean serum testosterone suppressed to castrate level by Week 3. The median dosing interval between injections was 28 days. One escape from suppression (2 consecutive testosterone values greater than 50 ng/dL after achieving castrate level) was noted at Week 18, associated with a substantial dosing delay. In this patient, serum testosterone returned to the castrate range at the next monthly measurement. Serum testosterone was minimally above the castrate range on a single occasion for 4 other patients. No clinical significance was attributed to these rises in testosterone.

Reproductive status is regulated by nutritional feedback to the hypothalamus that controls GnRH and hence LH pulsatile output ( Miller et al ., 2007 ). Both leptin and insulin have been shown to be involved in the long-and short-term control of reproductive neuroendocrine function in several species, including sheep. Both insulin and leptin stimulates LH secretion ( Cunningham et al ., 1999 ; Adam et al ., 2003 ; Miller et al ., 2007 ). Miller et al . (2007) further hypothesized that GnRH/LH stimulation by increasing nutritional status is mediated by increased amounts of circulating leptin and insulin entering the brain, down-regulating hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and up-regulating expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). whereas GnRH/LH inhibition by decreasing nutritional status is mediated by decreased amounts of circulating leptin and insulin entering the brain, up-regulating hypothalamic NPY and AgRP expression and down-regulating POMC and CART expression. The GnRH/LH response to an increasing plane of nutrition appears to be mediated by changes in circulating insulin, which enters the hypothalamic CSF and stimulates reproductive neuroendocrine output by inhibiting NPY expression. The GnRH/LH response to a decreasing plane of nutrition appears to be mediated by changes in leptin signaling via increased leptin receptor expression, which inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine output by inhibiting melanocortin activity ( Miller et al ., 2007 ).

As with other GnRH agonists, patients may experience hot flashes. During the first few weeks of treatment, patients may also experience increased bone pain, increased difficulty in urinating, and the onset or aggravation of weakness or paralysis . Patients should notify their doctor if they develop new or worsened symptoms after beginning ELIGARD®  treatment. Patients should be told about the injection site related adverse reactions, such as transient burning/stinging, pain, bruising, and redness. These injection site reactions are usually mild and reversible. If they do not resolve, patients should tell their doctor. If the patient experiences an allergic reaction, they should contact their doctor immediately.

Gonadal steroidogenesis ppt

gonadal steroidogenesis ppt

As with other GnRH agonists, patients may experience hot flashes. During the first few weeks of treatment, patients may also experience increased bone pain, increased difficulty in urinating, and the onset or aggravation of weakness or paralysis . Patients should notify their doctor if they develop new or worsened symptoms after beginning ELIGARD®  treatment. Patients should be told about the injection site related adverse reactions, such as transient burning/stinging, pain, bruising, and redness. These injection site reactions are usually mild and reversible. If they do not resolve, patients should tell their doctor. If the patient experiences an allergic reaction, they should contact their doctor immediately.

Media:

gonadal steroidogenesis pptgonadal steroidogenesis pptgonadal steroidogenesis pptgonadal steroidogenesis pptgonadal steroidogenesis ppt

http://buy-steroids.org