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Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol -induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database.
Eur J Pediatr. 2005.
We present a 15-month-old boy who developed fulminant hepatic failure after ingesting 10 ml of clove oil. After 24 h, the ALT level was in excess of 13,000 U/l, with blood urea and creatinine of mmol and 134 micromol/l respectively. The hepatic impairment resolved after intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine so that 6 h later, the ALT level was approximately 10,000 U/l. His liver synthetic function and clinical status improved over the next 4 days. This is the first such case report of its kind in Europe. Analysis of a national database revealed a 14-fold increase in home accidents related to aromatherapy from 1994-1999. Clove oil has important hepatotoxic effects. Conclusion: Recent growth in aromatherapy sales has been accompanied by an unfortunate increase in accidental poisoning from these products. Clove oil warrants special attention. Ingesting as little as 10 ml causes hepatotoxicity which can be treated with N-acetylcysteine.
PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DEVELOPMENT AND VASCULARIZATION During human and nonhuman primate pregnancy, the placenta simultaneously accesses the maternal blood and develops a vascular network for the transport of nutrients to and waste products from the fetus across the syncytiotrophoblast to ensure fetal growth and development. Both processes depend on the ability of the primordial stem-cell cytotrophoblasts to take either the villous pathway where they remain in the fetal compartment and differentiate morphologically into the syncytiotrophoblast or the extravillous pathway where they proliferate, aggregate into cell columns of the anchoring villi, and invade the endometrial stroma (Fig. 6). 105 The syncytiotrophoblast covers the floating chorionic villi that become highly vascularized, whereas the extravillous cytotrophoblasts infiltrate the walls of the spiral arterioles to facilitate the process of placentation.