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When Summers was the US Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, he told the Japanese government not to raise the consumption tax rate from 3% to 5%. [40] But the government ignored his warnings, and raised the tax in 1997 for the purpose of balancing its budget. Although the country recorded a GDP growth rate of 3 percent in 1996, the economy sank into recession in 1998. [3] On top of that, the revenue of the government decreased by trillion yen in 1998 mainly because Japan's domestic consumption stumbled. Graph A shows the revenue of the Japanese government during 1994-2006. [41] The tax revenue reached a peak of 53 trillion yen in FY 1997, and declined in subsequent years, being still 42 trillion yen [42] (537 billion USD) in 2012.

Intravenous supra-pharmacological doses of corticosteroids are used in various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions because they are cumulatively less toxic than sustained steroid treatment at lower quantitative dosage. Their action is supposed to be mediated through non-genomic actions within the cell. Common indications for use in children include steroid resistant and steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, systemic vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute renal allograft rejection, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, pemphigus, optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Methylprednisolone and dexamethasone show similar efficacy in most conditions. Therapy is associated with significant side effects including worsening of hypertension, infections, dyselectrolytemia and behavioral effects. Adequate monitoring is essential during usage.

It’s therefore natural to think of antibiotic therapy as the natural opposite of steroids, and this has some truth to it. In the case of infection — which, remember, is not the only cause of inflammation — steroids do inhibit the immune response. But bear in mind that antibiotics do not, as a general rule, actually support or promote the body’s inflammatory response; rather, they work independently by attacking the infection directly along their own pathways. The result is that some pathologies (such as the contentious cases of sepsis and epiglottitis) may respond  both to steroids — to manage the excessive inflammatory response — and antibiotics — to help eliminate the source infection.

Iv pulse steroids

iv pulse steroids


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