Depression and anxiety are the most common psychiatric conditions seen in the general medical setting, affecting millions of individuals in the United States. The treatments for depression and anxiety are multiple and have varying degrees of effectiveness. Physical activity has been shown to be associated with decreased symptoms of depression and anxiety. Physical activity has been consistently shown to be associated with improved physical health, life satisfaction, cognitive functioning, and psychological well-being. Conversely, physical inactivity appears to be associated with the development of psychological disorders. Specific studies support the use of exercise as a treatment for depression. Exercise compares favorably to antidepressant medications as a first-line treatment for mild to moderate depression and has also been shown to improve depressive symptoms when used as an adjunct to medications. While not as extensively studied, exercise has been shown to be an effective and cost-efficient treatment alternative for a variety of anxiety disorders. While effective, exercise has not been shown to reduce anxiety to the level achieved by psychopharmaceuticals.
Congenital disease was first reported in a 3 days old baby girl in New York, 1938 who developed seizure and eyes lesion and died after one month of birth ( 214 ). Congenital toxoplasmosis is mostly a subclinical infection in about 85% of the infants whose mothers have been treated for Toxoplasma during pregnancy ( 143 ). Theses proportions are influenced by factors such as, the time of maternal infection, treatment given to the mother, organism load and the genetics of the host and the strain of Toxoplasma . The incidence of fetal infection is estimated 2% if the maternal infection occur before week 10 and 90% in the last weeks of pregnancy. However, early maternal infection is reported to cause higher risk of disease and brain damage. Congenital toxoplasmosis manifests with spontaneous miscarriage and abortion, fetal growth retardation, encephalomyelitis, intracranial calcifications, hydrocephalus, neurological, mental illnesses, retinochoroiditis, visual and auditory inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular abnormalities ( 55 , 130 , 150 , 152 , 174 ), gastrointestinal complications and pain ( 57 , 114 , 148 , 149 , 150 , 158 ). The severity of complications depends on the gestation period when the fetus is infected, and the earlier the infection the more severe the complications ( 55 , 174 ). Those fetuses infected late in gestation may born normal, but develop symptoms of CNS and retinochoroiditis later in life and the new lesions may occur in untreated as well as treated children ( 55 ). Retrospective trials (2000–2011) reviled 18% (2206/12035) prevalence rate of anti- Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women. Thirty eight per 10,000 of these women had acute infection and % transplacentally infected their neonates as reported in Argentina ( 29 ).
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