Steroid hepatopathy definition

In dogs and cats moribund from overwhelmingly severe infections for which antibacterial therapy is available (., critical pneumonia, pyometritis), a glucocorticoid may be lifesaving, acting to inhibit the inflammatory reaction, which itself may be lethal; preventing vascular collapse and preserving the integrity of the blood vessels; modifying the animal’s reaction to drugs; and preventing or reducing the exudative reaction which often complicates certain infections. As supportive therapy, it improves the general attitude of the animal being treated. All necessary procedures for the establishment of a bacterial diagnosis should be carried out whenever possible before institution of therapy. Corticosteroid therapy in the presence of infection should be administered for the shortest possible time compatible with maintenance of an adequate response, and antibacterial therapy should be continued for at least three days after the hormone has been withdrawn. Combined hormone and antibacterial therapy does not obviate the need for indicated surgical treatment. 1 2 3 4 5 6

2. Antitussive: Temaril-P has been found to be effective therapy and adjunctive therapy in various cough conditions of dogs. Therefore, in addition to its antipruritic action, Temaril-P is recommended for the treatment of “kennel cough” or tracheobronchitis, bronchitis including all allergic bronchitis, and infections and coughs of nonspecific origin. (Coughs due to cardiac insufficiencies would not be expected to respond to Temaril-P therapy.) As with any antitussive treatment, the etiology of the cough should be determined and eliminated if possible. Otherwise, symptoms are likely to recur following discontinuance of therapy.

Histologic and electron microscopic examination of liver tissue from glucocorticoid-treated dogs (GT dogs) showed a markedly abnormal hepatocellular morphology which consisted of severe hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation, and peripheral displacement of subcellular organelles. The abnormal cell morphology was typical of that seen in clinical cases of canine Cushing's Syndrome. The hepatocyte isolation procedure used here works equally well for the preparation of viable hepatocytes from both normal and GT dogs even though GT dogs displayed a pronounced hepatopathy. Cell yields (10 9 cells from a 30-cm 3 section of liver) are similar to those reported for rat hepatocytes using whole liver in situ perfusion and cell viability is routinely greater than 85%. The isolation procedure preserved the “abnormal” state or swollen morphology of the hepatocytes from GT dogs and thus can be used in pathophysiological studies of glucocorticoid-induced hepatopathy. The isolated hepatocytes were times greater in cell volume than normal hepatocytes. We also observed over a -fold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and the appearance in both the liver and the serum of GT dogs of the unique, cortiocosteroid alkaline phosphatase isozyme (CALP). In spite of the obvious abnormal liver morphology and elevated serum and liver alkaline phosphatase activities, the function of the hepatic cell surface carbohydrate binding protein, the Gal/GalNAc or asialoglycoprotein receptor, was not impaired. We found a trend of about a -fold increase in the initial rate of ligand uptake as well as -fold more receptors on GT dog hepatocytes compared to normal hepatocytes. The ligand binding affinity of these receptors, as well as the rate of ligand degradation, was identical in hepatocytes isolated from normal and diseased dogs. When intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IALP) is used as the ligand, approximately 25% was exocytosed intact following endocytosis. These results demonstrate that dogs with glucocorticoid hepatopathy possess a normally functioning Gal/GalNAc receptor. Furthermore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that structurally related IALP and CALP isozymes may also be metabolically related through the Gal/GalNAc receptor endocytosis pathway. That is, a portion of the IALP normally endocytosed through the Gal/GalNAc receptor pathway in glucocorticoid-treated dogs may be recycled and converted (hyperglycosylated) to the abnormal serum CALP isozyme rather than being degraded.

The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system in birds is anatomically and functionally different from that in mammals. The adrenal gland structure and corticosteroid hormone physiology of birds will be reviewed. The anatomy and physiology sections of this article will be important for better understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and possible treatment of primary or secondary adrenal gland disease. Causes of hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism in birds also will be reviewed. The article will conclude with current indications and complications to the clinical use of glucocorticoids in birds.

Steroid hepatopathy definition

steroid hepatopathy definition

The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system in birds is anatomically and functionally different from that in mammals. The adrenal gland structure and corticosteroid hormone physiology of birds will be reviewed. The anatomy and physiology sections of this article will be important for better understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and possible treatment of primary or secondary adrenal gland disease. Causes of hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism in birds also will be reviewed. The article will conclude with current indications and complications to the clinical use of glucocorticoids in birds.

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