The majority of Leydig cell tumors are found in males, usually at 5–10 years of age or in middle adulthood (30–60 years). Children typically present with precocious puberty. Due to excess testosterone secreted by the tumour, one-third of female patients present with a recent history of progressive masculinization . Masculinization is preceded by anovulation , oligomenorrhea , amenorrhea and defeminization . Additional signs include acne and hirsutism , voice deepening, clitoromegaly , temporal hair recession, and an increase in musculature. Serum testosterone level is high. [ citation needed ]
Ribosomes are particles that synthesize proteins from amino acids. They are composed of four RNA molecules and between 40 and 80 proteins assembled into a large and a small subunit. Ribosomes are either free (., not bound to membranes) in the cytoplasm of the cell or bound to the RER. Lysosomal enzymes, proteins destined for the ER, Golgi, and cell membranes, and proteins to be secreted from the cell are among those synthesized on membrane-bound ribosomes. Fabricated on free ribosomes are proteins remaining in the cytosol and those bound to the internal surface of the outer membrane, as well as those to be incorporated into the nucleus , mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and other organelles. Special features of proteins label them for transport to specific destinations inside or outside of the cell. In 1971 German-born cellular and molecular biologist Günter Blobel and Argentinian-born cellular biologist David Sabatini suggested that the amino-terminal portion of the protein (the first part of the molecule to be made) could act as a “signal sequence.” They proposed that such a signal sequence would facilitate the attachment of the growing protein to the ER membrane and lead the protein either into the membrane or through the membrane into the ER lumen (interior).